ROLE OF SUGAR-SWEETENED BEVERAGES FOR INCREASING NON-COMMUINACBLE DISEASES IN PAKISTAN  

Imbsat Habib

1
Table of Contents
Profile Summary …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2
Background Information………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
Summary of problem ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
Synthesis of data …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5
Best practices from other countries……………………………………………………………………………………. 5
Solutions for reduction of consumption of SSBs…………………………………………………………………. 6
Reference ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8

“ Role of Sugar Sweetened Beverages in Increasing Non
communicable Diseases in Pakistan ”

Background Information

Sugar sweetened beverages includes the rich amount of sucrose and fructose corn syrup which
leads to different NCDs. These diseases occur from an acute infection and sometimes due to
excess use of sugar sweetened beverages. The risk of suffering from various diseases increases
and it often requires long-term treatments but unfortunately the cure ratio is less as compared
to spread ratio. According to NCD survey done in Pakistan in 2014-2015, it was noticed that
41.3% people were obesed 37% were suffering from hypertension and 26% were diabetic.

These sugar sweetened beverages leads to various diseases in Pakistan including heart diseases,
increase in the number of cavities in teeth, weight gain, diabetes, osteoporosis, hypertension,
Alzheimer’s disease and a lot of various other diseases. In past, less people get affected from
non communicable diseases as compared to today’s generation and this is due to over use of
beverages. Now a days beverage industries are increasing their sales through different posters
and commercials which acts in increasing the attraction of audience including young
generation in purchasing sugar sweetened beverages and due to this their lives are being ruined.
Early detection, proper treatments and awareness will possibly acts in reducing the spread ratio
of non communicable diseases.

Summary of problem

By reviewing different research articles it had been concluded that the ratio of NCDs are more
in people who drank the sugar enriched beverages.One of the top disease in the list of NCDs
is type 2 diabetes and it starts to spread in body as the patient starts to drank the sugar enriched
beverages then the blood sugar level starts to boost and due to which more pressure on pancreas
starts to develop in order to release insulin to bring the blood sugar on the normal level. If the
same habit of drinking sugar enriched beverages continues then at one time your pancreas
would become insulin resistant and would stop producing insulin.

When we look back in 1950 then we would come to know that in this era a lot of diseases had
been occurred and there would be different reasons for different diseases but one of the major
cause is that we had forget the use of natural products and we think that by using the ready
made products we could secure our time but instead of getting rid of diseases we are going in
more depth of such diseases. Wise solution to get prevention from NCDs is that we should not
forget our roots which our ancestors had given to us and always try to use natural products.

One of the most common example is that in past most people prefer to use brown sugar in diet
and also use it in the preparation of sweet dishes so they were less prone towards diseases.
People also used Stevia plant in past to add sweet flavor in food. According to survey done in
2015, it was observed that teenagers were consuming 226 calories a day and that were above
the normal calorie intake of normal teenager. In Pakistan, due to increase in the advertisement
of sugar enriched beverages most of teenagers are attracted and they thought by drinking such
beverages their body becomes more energetic.

Food is an essential need and it gives you a feeling that your belly is full filled and you don’t
need to eat more. But sugar sweetened beverages does not gives you a feeling of full filled so
that you eat more and more until you become obese. Then you starts to take different measures
in order to bring body weight to normal level and for that you would sacrifice a lot. So its better
to be aware from beginning until it would be so late and you had to feel regret. One fact that
all these studies agree on, is that there is a 20 percent higher risk of heart attack in those who
drink more amount of beverages. Sugar enriched drinks have a direct impact on heart health.
Sweetened beverages are also responsible for tooth decay in both adults and children. Mostly
children suffers from acute tooth pain that lasts for two days. Regular brushing teeth for 2 times

5
a day should be done and regarding to handle this situation both parents and teachers must play
their role. If not payed attention it would also leads to tooth erosion that would become difficult
to cure.
Gout is also the leading cause of problems in adults. In this condition the uric acid starts to
accumulate in joints and toes of feet starts to swallow. It was observed that fructose is a leading
agent in developing gout. 75% women are suffering from gout worldwide.
Researches had concluded that people who consumed SSDs more than people who don’t drank
had twice chances of getting NCDs in life. 87% people develops pancreatic cancer due to
excess intake of sugar containing beverages. Mostly women suffers more as compared to
males. Postmenopausal women are at higher risk to suffer from endometrium cancer. Colon
cancer, osteoporosis in adults may arose due to excessive intake of sugar enriched beverages.
Synthesis of data
Data was being collected from people by conducting and arranging interactive sessions. Statistical
analysis was then done by STATA software. Heterogeneity was observed by Cochran’s Q-test.
Body weight of participants was observed by DerSimonian–Laird method. BMI of participants
was also observed. At the time of analysis participants were added in different categories like age,
gender, regions from where they belongs and the total number of participants. All the previous
data containing the details of experimental procedures and evolution must also be observed.
Best practices from other countries
Kenya
In 2015, a survey was done regarding NCDs and it was observed that the number of
cardiovascular diseases were increasing. So in order to tackle this problem in Kenya, 10
shillings per liter was charged on all soft drinks and in 2018, 20 shillings were being charged
on per kilogram on all sugar containing products.
Rwanda
In Rwanda, Africa a survey was done and its results shows that 36% deaths of people occur
from NCDs and in 2018, 1167 males and 1708 females were affected. People who consumed
Imbsat Habib
6
1-2 bottles of sugar sweetened beverages were at 26% risk of suffering from type-2 diabetes.
Rwanda Government had introduced 39% tax on public .
Saudi Arabia
In Saudi Arabia, 13.4%-18.2% children suffers from obesity by consumption of sugar
sweetened beverages and in order to prevent this problem, Government had arranged 50% tax
on consumption of beverages in 2017. When reviewing the sales chart of beverages in Saudi
Arabia it was 0.6988 at first and in 2017 it moved to -0.0157.
Uganda
In 2014 in Uganda, the ratio of hypertension was 24% and diabetic patients ratio was 3.4% and
now it had reached 10.9%. Mostly people in the age category 18-69 years were being affected
from SSBs. 2% of the revenue was charged from beverages and then was utilized for HIV trust
fund. Prices of vegetables and fruits were decreased 30-40% so that most of people can buy
and can use them instead of beverages.
Philippines
In 2013, a bill was passed in order to revenue tax. The tax revenue was being used in arranging
the medicines for diabetic patients. Awareness was given by the nutritionist and tax amount was
being utilized in funding for research programs and in giving training to people. This initiative
taken by government had brought drastic changes in Philippines.
Finland
In 1948, tax amount was utilized in arranging the food for students studying in school and
university. Total tax on non-alcoholic beverages was €0.11 per liter those beverages in which 0.5%
sugar was present people had to pay €0.22 per liter.
Solutions for reduction of consumption of SSBs
1. Restrictions on the advertisement of SSBs on social media
2. Proper labelling on SSBs
3. Spreading awareness through social media
4. Providing the use of fruit juices as substitute method of SSBs
Imbsat Habib
7
5. Arranging the events by Government in schools, colleges, universities and offices
regarding to pointing the harmful effects of SSBs on human health and participants
should be encouraged by distributing prizes among them.
6. Reducing the sugar content in beverages and natural sugar should be used as an
alternative.
7. SSBs selling vendors and shop keepers must not be allowed to enter in schools.
8. Strict punishments should be given to those who break rules and heavy tax should be
charged for selling sugar sweetened beverages.
Imbsat Habib
8
Reference
Hawkes, C., Jewell, J., & Allen, K. (2013). A food policy package for healthy diets and the
prevention of obesity and diet‐related non‐communicable diseases: the NOURISHING
framework. Obesity reviews, 14, 159-168.