My name is Imbsat Habib. I am studying MS.Biochemistry at University Of Central Punjab, Lahore. I am critical thinker and likes to read articles and books. I also likes to travel and capture the places and the moments in camera. I had achieved different certificates including english language workshop certificate on 07-2004, improvement award from Fair Field High School on 26-03-2005, certificate for attending seminar on awareness on Environmenal Issues and Sustainibility at University Of Central Punjab on 27-03-2017, certificate for organizing Jehad for Zero Thalessemia Awareness event at University Of Cental Punjab on 08-10-2017, certificate on attending International Symposium on food sequrity, quality and safety at University Of CentalPunjabon 27-11-2018.
“ Role of Sugar Sweetened Beverages in Increasing Non communicable Diseases in Pakistan ”
Sugar sweetened beverages includes the rich amount of sucrose and fructose corn syrup which leads to different NCDs. These diseases occur from an acute infection and sometimes due to excess use of sugar sweetened beverages. The risk of suffering from various diseases increases and it often requires long-term treatments but unfortunately the cure ratio is less as compared to spread ratio. According to NCD survey done in Pakistan in 2014-2015, it was noticed that 41.3% people were obese 37% were suffering from hypertension and 26% were diabetic. These sugar sweetened beverages leads to various diseases in Pakistan including heart diseases, increase in the number of cavities in teeth, weight gain, diabetes, osteoporosis, hypertension, Alzheimer’s disease and a lot of various other diseases. In past, less people get affected from non communicable diseases as compared to today’s generation and this is due to over use of beverages. Now a day’s beverage industries are increasing their sales through different posters and commercials which acts in increasing the attraction of audience including young generation in purchasing sugar sweetened beverages and due to this their lives are being ruined. Early detection, proper treatments and awareness will possibly acts in reducing the spread ratio of non communicable diseases.
Summary of problem
By reviewing different research articles it had been concluded that the ratio of NCDs are more in people who drank the sugar enriched beverages. One of the top disease in the list of NCDs is type 2 diabetes and it starts to spread in body as the patient starts to drank the sugar enriched beverages then the blood sugar level starts to boost and due to which more pressure on pancreas starts to develop in order to release insulin to bring the blood sugar on the normal level. If the same habit of drinking sugar enriched beverages continues then at one time your pancreas would become insulin resistant and would stop producing insulin.
When we look back in 1950 then we would come to know that in this era a lot of diseases had been occurred and there would be different reasons for different diseases but one of the major cause is that we had forget the use of natural products and we think that by using the readymade products we could secure our time but instead of getting rid of diseases we are going in more depth of such diseases. Wise solution to get prevention from NCDs is that we should not forget our roots which our ancestors had given to us and always try to use natural products. One of the most common examples is that in past most people prefer to use brown sugar in diet and also use it in the preparation of sweet dishes so they were less prone towards diseases. People also used Stevie plant in past to add sweet flavor in food. In Pakistan, due to increase in the advertisement of sugar enriched beverages most of teenagers are attracted and they thought by drinking such beverages their body becomes more energetic.
Food is an essential need and it gives you a feeling that your belly is full filled and you don’t need to eat more. But sugar sweetened beverages does not gives you a feeling of full filled so that you eat more and more until you become obese. Then you start to take different measures in order to bring body weight to normal level and for that you would sacrifice a lot. So it’s better to be aware from beginning until it would be so late and you had to feel regret. One fact that all these studies agree on, is that there is a 20 percent higher risk of heart attack in those who drink more amount of beverages. Sugar enriched drinks have a direct impact on heart health.
Sweetened beverages are also responsible for tooth decay in both adults and children. Mostly children suffer from acute tooth pain that lasts for two days. Regular brushing teeth for 2 times a day should be done and regarding to handle this situation both parents and teachers must play their role. If not payed attention it would also leads to tooth erosion that would become difficult to cure.
Gout is also the leading cause of problems in adults. In this condition the uric acid starts to accumulate in joints and toes of feet starts to swallow. It was observed that fructose is a leading agent in developing gout. 75% women are suffering from gout worldwide.
Researches had concluded that people who consumed SSBs more than people who don’t drank had twice chances of getting NCDs in life. 87% people develop pancreatic cancer due to excess intake of sugar containing beverages. Mostly women suffer more as compared to males. Postmenopausal women are at higher risk to suffer from endometrial cancer. Colon cancer, osteoporosis in adults may arose due to excessive intake of sugar enriched beverages.
Synthesis of data
Data was being collected from people by conducting and arranging interactive sessions. Statistical analysis was then done by STATA software. Heterogeneity was observed by Cochran’s Q-test. Body weight of participants was observed by DerSimonian–Laird method. BMI of participants was also observed. At the time of analysis participants were added in different categories like age, gender, and regions from where they belong and the total number of participants. All the previous data containing the details of experimental procedures and evolution must also be observed.
Best practices from other countries
In 2015, a survey was done regarding NCDs and it was observed that the number of cardiovascular diseases was increasing. So in order to tackle this problem in Kenya, 10 shillings per liter was charged on all soft drinks and in 2018, 20 shillings were being charged on per kilogram on all sugar containing products.
In Rwanda, Africa a survey was done and its results shows that 36% deaths of people occur from NCDs and in 2018, 1167 males and 1708 females were affected. People who consumed 1-2 bottles of sugar sweetened beverages were at 26% risk of suffering from type-2 diabetes. Rwanda Government had introduced 39% tax on public.
In Saudi Arabia, 13.4%-18.2% children suffers from obesity by consumption of sugar sweetened beverages and in order to prevent this problem, Government had arranged 50% tax on consumption of beverages in 2017. When reviewing the sales chart of beverages in Saudi Arabia it was 0.6988 at first and in 2017 it moved to -0.0157.
In 2014 in Uganda, the ratio of hypertension was 24% and diabetic patient’s ratio was 3.4% and now it had reached 10.9%. Mostly people in the age category 18-69 years were being affected from SSBs. 2% of the revenue were charged from beverages and then was utilized for HIV trust fund. Prices of vegetables and fruits were decreased 30-40% so that most of people can buy and can use them instead of beverages.
In 2013, a bill was passed in order to revenue tax. The tax revenue was being used in arranging the medicines for diabetic patients. Awareness was given by the nutritionist and tax amount was being utilized in funding for research programs and in giving training to people. This initiative taken by government had brought drastic changes in Philippines.
In 1948, tax amount was utilized in arranging the food for students studying in school and university. Total tax on non-alcoholic beverages was €0.11 per liter those beverages in which 0.5% sugar was present people had to pay €0.22 per liter.
Solutions for reduction of consumption of SSBs
- Restrictions on the advertisement of SSBs on social media
- Proper labelling on SSBs
- Spreading awareness through social media
- Providing the use of fruit juices as substitute method of SSBs
- Arranging the events by Government in schools, colleges, universities and offices regarding to pointing the harmful effects of SSBs on human health and participants should be encouraged by distributing prizes among them.
- Reducing the sugar content in beverages and natural sugar should be used as an alternative.
- SSBs selling vendors and shop keepers must not be allowed to enter in schools.
- Strict punishments should be given to those who break rules and heavy tax should be charged for selling sugar sweetened beverages.
Hawkes, C., Jewell, J., & Allen, K. (2013). A food policy package for healthy diets and the prevention of obesity and diet‐related non‐communicable diseases: the NOURISHING framework. Obesity reviews, 14, 159-168.