Non-communicable disease (NCDs) is a non-infectious disease that is also called chronic disease. These diseases are not transferred from person to person, or in other words, we can also define its a ” non-infectious health condition and remain last for a longer period.”


A combination of genetic, lifestyle, physiological, environmental, and behavioural factors can be the reason for these diseases.


Risk Factors:




  • Unhealthy Diet and Fizzy Drinks (Sugar-Sweetened


  • Smoking

3-Lack of Physical Activity

  • Harmful Use of Alcohol
  • Overweight/ Obesity
  • High Blood Sugar Levels
  • Excessive Use of Tobacco
  • Age Factor


Types of NCDs:


The prominent type of NCDs is cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and others mentioned below.


  • cardiovascular disease (strokes, heart attacks, coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, congenital heart disease, and deep vein thrombosis)


  • Diabetes mellitus (TYPE 1, TYPE 2, other diabetes includes gestational and prediabetes)
  • Cancer
  • chronic respiratory disease (COPD, asthma, black lung, pulmonary hypertension)


other most common non-communicable diseases:


  • arthritis
  • chronic kidney disease etc







NCDs kill almost 41 million people each year across the globe, and nearly 2/3rd occurs in low and middle income countries.


Modified behavioural risk factors:


  1. Consumption of alcohol and tobacco in an excessive manner
  2. Excessive intake of salts/sodium (so it is needed to cut back the salt from daily life routine) 3. Insufficient physical activity
  3. Excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. These are high in artificial sugar content and due to their high consumption and excessive use obesity/overweight can cause. People are from upper class and also lower class are highly addicted to these fizzy or soft drinks. In 2015 our govt. Added extra tax to these sugar sweetened

beverages factories and this is first step for the improvement for the safety and health of people.





Role of Sugar-Sweetened beverages for increasing noncommunicable diseases in Pakistan:


Limiting the amount of SSB intake can help individuals maintain a healthy weight and have a healthy diet.

Frequently taking sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is leads to weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, heart diseases, kidney diseases, non-alcoholic liver diseases, tooth decay, cancer, and arthritis.



what are sweetened sugar beverages:


Sugar-sweetened beverages are liquids that are sweetened with different forms of added sugars like brown sugar, corn sweetener, corn syrup dextrose, fructose, glucose, high fructose corn syrup, honey, lactose, maltose, and raw sugar.


Sugar-sweetened beverages are the drinks added to artificial sweeteners including non -diet soft drinks/soda flavoured juices coffee drinks, flavoured milk, and electrolytes replacement drinks.





Those soft drinks do not fill up the nutrition levels as the food does. These contain extra calories that unfortunately lead to various future problems.



  1. Fruit Drinks
  2. Energy Drinks
  3. Sweetened Waters
  4. Coca Cola
  5. Pepsi
  6. Dew
  7. Tea Beverages with Added Sugars



What are the effects of the consumption of high sugar drinks?


Fast Facts

  • excessive and high consumption of sugary drinks can lead to weight gain, and due to weight gain and being overweight contribute to the diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and other chronic diseases (arthritis and kidney disease)
  • High sugar drinks can also cause tooth decay in all age groups and remain last for long.



as many deaths are reported due to NCDs in Pakistan on daily basis due to the high intake of sugary sweetened drinks. these fizzy drinks directly affect blood sugar levels and raise these levels in the blood and also cause obesity.


As per International Diabetes Federation Report 2021, Pakistan has 3rd highest number of people living with diabetes worldwide with 33 million cases.


According to the report, about 1.7 million deaths are reported yearly due to low fruit and vegetable diet. utilization of high sugary drinks and high energy fats causes obesity. Unfortunately, obesity is the risk factor for NCDs. Usage of high salt intake also creates a problem of high blood pressure and ultimately it leads to heart attacks and cardiovascular diseases.

WHO recommends that salt diet intake should be less than 5 grams per day per person.

2.8 million deaths are reported worldwide due to overweight and obesity. eventually due to overweight body mass index is also increased and increase in the risk of coronary heart approximately disease, diabetes mellitus, and ischemic stroke and as well as cancer and arthritis.

To lessen health care costs and NCDs, it is foremost to discontinue the usage of SSBs. in which Govt should raise a tax on these highly sugary drinks. its a basic and first step to overcoming the obesity and disease burden of related NCDs.




NCDs are one of the top reasons for mobility and mortality in Pakistan. According to a survey by WHO, 58% deaths are caused due to NCDs(cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, cancer mental disturbance, and injuries).


Pakistan is ranked third with highest number of people living with diabetes which is 31% of the adult population.


*Article written by *


Ayesha Zahid