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Eating behaviors and adherence to food groups based dietary guidelines- a population based study

Eating behaviors and adherence to food groups based dietary guidelines- a population based study

Abstract:
Background & Aims: Eating behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines is important for better nutrition of a society. There is little information available from population about the eating habits especially with respect to dietary guidelines. Therefore we planned this study to determine the eating behavior and adherence to dietary guidelines in our population.

Methods:
It was a community based study conducted in five cities with two stage stratified sampling approach. Total of 448 participants were interviewed using Food frequency questionnaire adapted to local context. Five food groups (proteins, cereals, dairy, vegetables and fruits) were taken as per dietary guidelines. A score point of 1 was given to each food group making a total of 5 scores. Data were analyzed using SPSS.

Results:
Among food groups, mean intake of cereals (carbohydrates) was high (3.38±1.39) followed by other items with fruits was least (0.76±0.91). Daily intake of dairy products was significantly high among female (p=0.001) and in the age group 30-40 years (p=0.02) while daily fruit intake was significantly common in high socio-economic groups (p=0.028). Overall, at least one serving of discretionary food was taken by participants which was more female gender (p= 0.001), graduates (p= 0.003), high socio-economic group (p=0.001) and employed persons (p= 0.04).
None of the participants had 05 score while only 1% achieved score 04 indicating poor adherence to dietary guidelines. However, adherence was more in females (B = 0.45, 95%CI = 0.24; 0.66), graduates (B = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.25; 0.64), unmarried (B = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.18; 0.43), unemployed (B = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.01-0.43) and aged >50 years (B = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.08; 0.60) as compared to others.

Conclusion:
This study showed that majority was at least taking one serving of discretionary food daily while the consumption of fruit was less indicating poor dietary habit. There is need to educate the people about the healthy diet intake through awareness campaigns.

Author
Ibrar Rafique, Muhammad Arif Nadeem Saqib, Nighat Murad, Muhammad Kashif Munir, Aftab Khan, Rabia Irshad, Tayyaba Rahat, Saima Naz