Sarcopenic Obesity; Risk Factors and Dietary Control
Background: The world population is rapidly growing and it is predicted that till 2050 about 22% population will be older than 60 years and almost 5% will be aged more than 80 years. In line with growing age incidence of health ailments is increasing results in increased risks of falls, disability, loss of independence and premature deaths. Additionally these conditions increase burden on our health care system and national economy. Physical impairments with growing age is highly multifactorial however with age, decrease in muscle mass and strength accompanied by reduced skeletal muscle functioning is a major contributor, termed as sarcopenia. The imbalance of energy intake and fat accumulation results in obesity.
Sarcopenic Obesity causes: Sarcopenic Obesity (SO) a major public health concern prevalent in older aged people causes obesity with sarcopenia or age related decline in muscle mass and strength. There is interplay between changing lifestyles, lack of physical activity, hypercaloric diet, hormonal imbalance, inflammation, oxidative stress, insulin resistance and aging resulting in increased fat accumulation and declined muscle mass. Globally sacrcopenic obesity is growing rapidly due to non specific symptoms, remains undiagnosed and unsuspected.
Risk Factors: Studies have shown that sacrcopenic obesity is synergistically associated with functional decline and increased incidence of non communicable diseases (NCDs) such as dislipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, cardiometabolic disorders and mortality.
Control and concluding remarks: The effective strategies to counteract sarcoplasmic obesity include hypocaloric diet with high protein intake, micronutrient supplements, bariatric surgery along exercise strategies. However further research is required to clearly understand optimal weight loss, intensity, frequency and type of exercise and combined effect of nutrition and exercise on physical functioning parameters and body composition in sarcopenic obese older adults.
Keywords: Sarcopenic obesity, aging, NCDs, nutrition and diet, Exercise and physical activity
Nimra Sameed, Dr. Samreen Ahsan, Dr. Muhammad Farhan Jahangir Chughtai
Khwaja Fareed UEIT, Rahim Yar Khan
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